Discourses Concerning Government
American Priors
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SECTION I INTRODUCTIONSECT II The common Notions of Liberty are not from School Divines, but from NatureSECT III Implicit Faith belongs to Fools, and Truth is comprehended by examining PrinciplesSECT IV The Rights of particular Nations cannot subsist, if General Principles contrary to them are received as trueSECT V To depend upon the Will of a Man is SlaverySECT VI God leaves to Man the choice of Forms in Government; and those who constitute one Form, may abrogate itSECT VII Abraham and the Patriarchs were not KingsSECT VIII Nimrod was the first King, during the Life of Chush, Cham, Shem, and NoahSECT IX The Power of a Father belongs only to a FatherSECT X Such as enter into Society, must in some degree diminish their LibertySECT XI No Man comes to command many, unless by Consent or by ForceSECT XII The pretended paternal Right is divisible or indivisible if divisible, 'tis extinguished; if indivisible, universalSECT XIII There was no shadow of a paternal Kingdom amongst the Hebrews, nor precept for itSECT XIV If the paternal Right had included Dominion, and was to be transferred to a single Heir, it must perish if he were not known; and could be applied to no other personSECT XVI The Antients chose those to be Kings, who excelled in the Vertues that are most beneficial to Civil SocietiesSECT XVII God having given the Government of the World to no one Man, nor declared how it should be divided, left it to the Will of ManSECT XVIII If a right of Dominion were esteemed Hereditary according to the Law of Nature, a multitude of destructive and inextricable Controversies would thereupon ariseSECT XIX Kings cannot confer the right of Father upon Princes, nor Princes upon KingsSECT XX All just Magistratical Power is from the People
SECT I That 'tis natural for Nations to govern, or to chuse Governors; and that Vertue only gives a natural preference of one man above another, or reason why one should be chosen rather than anotherSECT II Every Man that hath Children, hath the right of a Father, and is capable of preferment in a Society composed of manySECT III Government is not instituted for the good of the Governor, but of the Governed; and Power is not an Advantage, but a BurdenSECT IV The Paternal Right devolves to, and is inherited by all the ChildrenSECT V Freemen join together and frame greater or lesser Societies, and give such Forms to them as best please themselvesSECT VI They who have a right of chusing a King, have the right of making a KingSECT VII The Laws of every Nation are the measure of Migistratical PowerSECT VIII There is no natural propensity in Man or Beast to MonarchySECT IX The Government instituted by God over the Israelites was AristocraticalSECT X Aristotle was not simply for Monarchy or against Popular Government; but approved or disapproved of either according to circumstancesSECT XI Liberty produceth Vertue, Order and Stability Slavery is accompanied with Vice, Weakness and MiserySECT XII The Glory, Vertue, and Power of the Romans began and ended with their LibertySECT XIII There is no disorder or prejudice in changing the name or number of Magistrates, whilst the root and principle of their Power continues intireSECT XIV No Sedition was hurtful to Rome, till through their Prosperity some men gained a Power above the LawsSECT XV The Empire of Rome perpetually decay'd when it fell into the hands of one ManSECT XVI The best Governments of the World have bin composed of Monarchy, Aristocracy, and DemocracySECT XVII Good Governments admit of Changes in the Superstructures, whilst the Foundations remain unchangeableSECT XVIII Xenophon in blaming the Disorders of Democracies, favours Aristocracies, not MonarchiesSECT XIX That Corruption and Venality which is natural to Courts, is seldom found in Popular GovernmentsSECT XX Man's natural love to Liberty is temper'd by Reason, which originally is his NatureSECT XXI Mixed and Popular Governments preserve Peace, and manage VVars, better than Absolute MonarchiesSECT XXII Commonwealths seek Peace or VVar according to the Variety of their ConstitutionsSECT XXIII That is the best Government, which best provides for WarSECT XXIV Popular Governments are less subject to Civil Disorders than Monarchies; manage them more ably, and more easily recover out of themSECT XXV Courts are more subject to Venality and Corruption than Popular GovernmentsSECT XXVI Civil Tumults and Wars are not the greatest Evils that befal NationsSECT XXVII The Mischiefs and Cruelties proceeding from Tyranny are greater than any that can come from Popular or mixed GovernmentsSECT XXVIII Men living under Popular or Mix'd Governments, are more careful of the publick Good, than in Absolute MonarchiesSECT XXIX There is no assurance that the Distempers of a State shall be cured by the Wisdom of a PrinceSECT XXX A Monarchy cannot be well regulated, unless the Powers of the Monarch are limited by LawSECT XXXI The Liberties of Nations are from God and Nature, not from KingsSECT XXXII The Contracts made between Magistrates, and the Nations that created them, were real, solemn, and obligatory
SECT I Kings not being fathers of their People, nor excelling all others in Virtue, can have no other just Power than what the Laws give; nor any title to the privileges of the Lord's AnointedSECT II The Kings of Israel and Judah were under a Law not safely to be transgress'dSECT III Samuel did not describe to the Israelites the glory of a free Monarchy; but the Evils the People should suffer, that he might divert them from desiring a KingSECT IV No People can be obliged to suffer from their Kings what they have not a right to doSECT V The Mischiefs suffer'd from wicked Kings are such as render it both reasonable and just for all Nations that have Virtue and Power to exert both in repelling themSECT VI 'Tis not good for such Nations as will have Kings, to suffer them to be glorious, powerful, or abounding in RichesSECT VIII Under the name of Tribute no more is understood than what the Law of each Nation gives to the supreme Magistrate for the defraying of publick Charges; to which the Customs of the Romans, or sufferings of the Jews have no relationSECT IX Our own Laws confirm to us the enjoyment of our native RightsSECT X The words of St Paul enjoying obedience to higher Powers, favour all sorts of Governments no less than MonarchySECT XI That which is not just, is not Law; and that which is not Law, ought not to be obeyedSECT XII The Right and Power of a Magistrate depends upon his Institution, not upon his NameSECT XIII Laws were made to direct and instruct Magistrates, and, if they will not be directed, to restrain themSECT XIV Laws are not made by Kings, not because they are busied in greater matters than doing Justice, but because Nations will be governed by Rule, and not ArbitrarilySECT XV A general presumption that Kings will govern well, is not a sufficient security to the PeopleSECT XVI The observation of the Laws of Nature is absurdly expected from Tyrants, who set themselves up against all Laws and he that subjects Kings to no other Law than what is common to Tyrants, destroys their beingSECT XVII Kings cannot be the Interpreters of the Oaths they takeSECT XVIII The next in blood to deceased Kings cannot generally be said to be Kings till they are crownedSECT XIX The greatest Enemy of a just Magistrate is he who endeavours to invalidate the Contract between him and the People, or to corrupt their MannersSECT XX Unjust Commands are not to be obey'd; and no man is obliged to suffer for not obeying such as are against LawSECT XXII The rigour of the Law is to be temper'd by men of known integrity and judgment, and not by the Prince who may be ignorant or viciousSECT XXIII Aristotle proves, that no man is to be entrusted with an absolute Power, by shewing that no one knows how to execute it, but such a man as is not to be foundSECT XXIV The power of Augustus Cesar was not given, but usurpedSECT XXV The Regal Power was not the first in this Nation; nor necessarily to be continued, tho it had bin the firstSECT XXVI Tho the King may be entrusted with the power of chusing Judges, yet that by which they act is from the LawSECT XXVII Magna Charta was not the Original, but a Declaration of the English Liberties The King's Power is not restrained, but created by that and other Laws; and the Nation that made them can only correct the defects of themSECT XXVIII The English Nation has always bin governed by it self or its RepresentativesSECT XXIX The King was never Master of the SoilSECT XXX Henry the First was King of England by as good a Title as any of his Predecessors or SuccessorsSECT XXXI Free Nations have a right of meeting, when and where they please, unless they deprive themselves of itSECT XXXII The powers of Kings are so various according to the Constitutions of several States, that no consequence can be drawn to the prejudice or advantage of any one, merely from the nameSECT XXXIII The Liberty of a People is the gift of God and NatureSECT XXXIV No Veneration paid, or Honor conferr'd upon a just and lawful Magistrate, can diminish the Liberty of a NationSECT XXXV The Authority given by our Law to the Acts performed by a King de facto, detract nothing from the peoples right of creating whom they pleaseSECT XXXVI The general revolt of a Nation cannot be called a RebellionSECT XXXVII The English Government was not ill constituted, the defects more lately observed proceeding from the change of manners, and corruption of the timesSECT XXXVIII The Power of calling and dissolving Parliaments is not simply in the King The variety of Customs in chusing Parliament men, and the Errors a people may commit, neither prove that Kings are or ought to be AbsoluteSECT XXXIX Those Kings only are heads of the People, who are good, wise, and seek to advance no Interest but that of the PublickSECT XL Good Laws prescribe easy and safe Remedies against the Evils proceeding from the vices or infirmities of the Magistrate; and when they fail, they must be suppliedSECT XLI The People for whom and by whom the Magistrate is created, can only judg whether he rightly perform his Office or notSECT XLII The Person that wears the Crown cannot determine the Affairs which the Law refers to the KingSECT XLIII Proclamations are not LawsSECT XLIV No People that is not free can substitute DelegatesSECT XLV The Legislative Power is always Arbitrary, and not to be trusted in the hands of any who are not bound to obey the Laws they makeSECT XLVI The coercive power of the Law proceeds from the Authority of Parliament